Most people never wonder how their makeup is made. However, cosmetics is a big industry with $35 billion being spent on makeup in North America alone. The problem is that the past popularity of mercury and lead in makeup has led to the United States Food and Drug Administration playing a role in the regulation of safety and purity in cosmetics. Manufacturers can now only use ingredients that are deemed safe for human contact, but what makes up the right makeup?
The primary factor is consistency which is something that consumers look for. The last few swipes of lipstick will need to be the same shade as the first dew. Of course, there are many other factors that play a role in what consumers look for in makeup. How long it will last, and if it is run resistant, are important, along with a fresh look or if it will rub off on everything they come into contact with.
To achieve results that consumers love, cosmetic companies have invested a lot into making carefully guarded formulations. Manufacturing equipment has been made to produce safe and well-blended cosmetics that offer consistency in scent, colour and stability.
How is Foundation Made?
Foundation is the basis of your makeup routine and the best place to start when looking at how makeup is made. There are dry, mineral-based foundations on the market, but liquid foundation is often more popular. To start making this, the manufacturer will have pigments and oils along with some fragrance. This will need to be mixed well to blend all of the ingredients.
This mixing process is where the right equipment comes into play. In order to get the consistent and smooth texture of the foundation along with the right colours, the ingredients will have to go through a mixing process that is not achievable with a blender or other household tools. There are some products on the market which use advanced submicron processing to achieve their final results.
This process has the different ingredients in the foundation reduced in size to extremely small particles. Depending on what the final product will be, the manufacturer will rely on a number of sophisticated mixing machines. These machines are able to complete some challenging tasks including:
• Disintegration of solids
• The hydration of suspending and thickening agents
• Dissolution of powders
• The production of stable emulsions
• Mixing the thickeners, stabilisers and modifiers
• Blending liquids of varying viscosities
It is not only these tasks that will need to be completed. They all have to be done in a controlled and consistent manner in completely hygienic conditions using atex pumps. This is due to the fact that health and safety are at stake and the FDA will be watching.
How Mascara is Made
Mascara will add colour, length and thickness to the eyelashes while adding definition. The most popular colour is jet black. In some countries, coal and other potentially toxic substances are used to achieve the results of mascara. A safer alternative used by many companies is carbon black. Other colours such as brown will be achieved through the use of pigments like iron oxide.
There are a lot of different methods that are used along with a range of formulas. However, most manufacturers will create an emulsion of water and different oils, pigments and waxes. As mascara is used around the eye, it is vital that irritants and contaminants are not present.
Most people know that mixing water and oil is very hard. Modern manufacturers will use some advanced technology to make smooth mixtures that contain oils and water. These mixtures will have water and oils uniformly mixed together.
How Other Makeup Items are Made
When it comes to other popular makeup items like lipstick, they will be created through a similar process to foundation and mascara. To prevent spoilage of the final product, antioxidants and preservatives will be added to the waxes, oils and pigments. There are a lot of different pigments that have been approved by the FDA from carmine, which is an old go-to, to annatto which is plant-based. As there is a chance of lipstick being ingested by accident, special attention has to be paid to the ingredients.